Tomás Quintero: Unit 8 Assignment 2

One of the main topics of discussion that we have come by in this class is the notion of reality concerning representation. Susan Sontag writes in Regarding the Pain of Others how photographs have the power in which they encapsulate a reality of the real world, arguing that every photograph has a message behind it. But does capturing a reality truly capture the world in its realness? Richter would have argued that a photograph is a representation of what happened, it captures a perspective of the moment as it happens, but that photograph is not capturing the moment in its complete form. However, with consistencies in reproductions of a moment, one can create a more complete understanding of what the reality was, this reminded me of the scene showing Richter’s press release, as well as the whole series on October 18, 1977. 


While I watched Never Look Away, I was talking to a friend, discussing reality in terms of proofs in science. In science the concept of reality is very complicated. It is possible to have an amount of consistent empirically-based evidence that can allow someone to support a claim, say gravity, with a degree of confidence, but it is impossible to scientifically prove that gravity exists since it would argue that a claim is absolutely true in all possible cases. As humans, it is impossible to measure or calculate every variable that occurs, many are outside the bounds of our understanding. Since there is a limit to which we can observe every element of a situation, there is room for a claim to be disproven––in which gravity could be considered false. As a result, theories follow a model that allows for experiments to be replicated; therefore, consistency in the data allows for people to be convinced and accept a claim as reality. The best theories are the ones that last the longest and cover the most ground without being disproved. In a way, a theory is better than a proof because it is capable of describing the world and humanity: dynamic and ever-changing, with consistencies and patterns wherever we go. Every reality is consistent.

Tomás Quintero: Unit 8 Assignment 1

! & ? on Meinhof 

Hitler Within You

!: Students played integral roles, Meinhof uses their stubborn and angry attitudes to catalyze revolution and promote change. In doing so, they can question authority and doctrine enforced by their parent’s generation.

?: Do the “old-Nazi’s” old political ideas still hold sway in Germany? 

Human Dignity is Violable

!: The Emergency Laws are capable of cancelling out freedoms for the sake of defense! Governments are quick to cancel the freedoms of people to make way for militarization. 

?: Would it be possible to successfully demilitarize as a democracy without having other countries going in thinking that it was a power vacuum? One of the ways that one uses violence is to assert dominance over another––to take power from another. 

Vietnam and Germany

!: Germany was censoring people who opposed the Vietnam war while publishing anything that supported it.

?: Were there any other reasons as to why people supported the Vietnam War besides the ideology held behind it? That’s basically why the war started in the first place. 

Everybody Talks About the Weather

!: Any decision the government chooses to make is going to have consequences impacting people––be it in good ways or bad. 

?: Were there any benefits for the politicians for corroborating with the Shah other than to not suffer the consequences contained within the Shah’s threats?

Women in the SDS: Acting on Their Own Behalf

!: Due to the sexism within the movement and in society around it, the women involved in the movement did not receive the credit they were due. 

?: What were the goals of the movement? What were the people involved in the trying to accomplish from their actions?

! & ? on The Lost Honor of Katharina Blum

!: Terrorism was often used to create revolution. This stirred up fear among the civilians, making them wondering if they were next to be killed or imprisoned. I know that I would be terrified to be alive during that time. 

?: How highly (or lowly) were the journalists regarded of the time in terms of telling the truth? It was evident that they were seen to be making up information about Katharina Blum.

! & ? on Baader-Meinhof Komplex

!: Violence can be effectively used as an agent for enacting social and political change. The Red Army Faction, fighting the current governing system they perceive as fascist as a sign of resistance opposing the Vietnam War. 

?: In an attempt to create a more human society, the RAF used radically-fueled violence and inhuman means; in the process, they lose their own humanity. Are there cases in which violence and inhuman means are justified for a more human society? How far are we willing to go? And at what cost?

Yamato: The Drummers of Japan: February 23, 2020

The Yamato Drummers, hailing from Japan, expressed the powerful energy of life by way of rhythm, tempo, and pitch to the audience through their powerful Wadaiko drums. The dynamic choreography of the drummers, combined with the vivid heartbeat-esque cadences played on their traditional 400-year-old drums, shows me the drummers were expressing more than just a song, they were beating their souls into the drums; and, in doing so, into the audience. 

I also found it fascinating how the drummers would communicate into the crowd, not with voices; but rather with their motions, sounds, and rhythms. I was reminded of the material that both Bory and Munger covered in their units with how we understand messages and motion, as well as our bottom-up understanding of performance. 

I remember whispering to a friend during the performance about the way our bodies would shake when the performance would beat their drums. The power behind every thump of the drum was invigorating, ending with us creaming in call and response with the performers. By the end of the performance, we all felt as if we were ready for war; we all felt a massive amount of potential energy coursing through us. I would say this performance was by far one of my favorites. I have never had an experience that makes me feel so alive like this one did.

Native Foods of the Cherokee: February 3, 2020:

Initially, I attended this meeting being told by a friend that I would receive food. Although that was not the case, I was able to gain a new perspective on food sovereignty, which is the people’s right to healthy and culturally-appropriate food by way of  ecologically sustainable methods. 

The program consisted of a four-person panel––three members from a Cherokee Tribe in North Carolina and lawyer dedicated to disputes between Native Americans and the United States Government––of people who were involved in the Indigenous Food and Agriculture Initiative with a mission to enhance the health and wellness of their tribal communities. In order to fulfill their mission, these leaders focus on finding strategies through the legal system, policy, and finding ways to educate and empower tribal community members. 

The tribal members primarily focused on Cherokee recipes passed on from generation to generation, they especially talked about bean bread and ramps recipes as tribal delicacies. Bean bread is a very difficult recipe that few on the reservation were able to cook up. Ramps are a vegetable that is often considered to be delicious, but many tribal members were not a fan of their pungent smell.
The lawyer spoke about his experiences and his client’s difficulties in trying to grow their cultural foods that mean a lot to their tribes because of the influence and restrictions the United States Government poses on Native American Tribes.

Tomás Quintero: Unit 6 Assignment 1

!:

I think it’s depressing to think that the “individual condition of each of us is tragic (page 6),” comes from a place of truth. We are all inherently alone, always in our heads with something going on. We don’t necessarily know what is happening around us unless we are told that it has, in which “sometimes we escape from solitariness, though love or affection or perhaps creative moments, but those triumphs of life are pools of light we make for ourselves while the edge of the road is black: each of us dies alone (page 6).” 

?:

Have there been major cases in which “the clashing point of two subjets, two disciplines, two cultures––of two galaxies, so far as that goes––ought to produce creative chances (page 16)” has occurred?

Top 10 Scientific Theories I Recognized:

  • Albert Einstein: Special Relativity
  • Alfred Wegener: Plate Tectonics
  • Antoine Lavoisier: Oxygen theory of combustion
  • Charles Darwin: Evolution by Natural Selection
  • Copernicus: Heliocentrism
  • Game Theory: John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern
  • Max Planck, Einstein, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger, Max Born, Paul Dirac: Quantum Theory

Top 10 Scientific Experiments I Recognized:

  • Eratosthenes Measures the World: First Recorded Measurement of Earth’s Circumference
  • Gregor Mendel Cultivates Genetics: The fundamental rules of genetic inheritance
  • Isaac Newton Eyes Optics: The nature of color and light
  • Ivan Pavlov’s Dog: The discovery of conditioned reflexes
  • Marie Curie’s Work Matters: Defining radioactivity 
  • Robert Millikan Gets a Charge: The precise value of a single electron’s charge
  • William Harvey Takes the Pulse of Nature: The discovery of blood circulation
  • Young, Davisson and Germer See Particles of the Wave: The wavelike nature of light and electrons 

Tomás Quintero: Unit 5 Assignment 2

“Black Girl Linguistic Play” by Camille A. Brown focused on the experiences of black women regarding oppression and the unifying reality of childhood. In this way, Brown utilizes dance as a form of bodily expression to get her message across in a universal matter––through movement––to open a dialogue of race and identity between people from all backgrounds. This performance was my “Ah-ha!” moment of the unit. It all clicked for me as I was sitting in the performance hall. The performers were expressing the struggles posed against them in society by way of movement. I want to know more about the way the dancers approached this performance and how the team was formed. I also would want to see if the dancers have done any modifications to the repertoire over the years to refine their message to the public while still challenging historical norms and inspiring others to change the narrative.

[Reynolds Lecture]: Bryan Stevenson: January 28, 2020

Known as the founder and director of the Equal Justice Initiative (EJI) in Montgomery, Alabama, Stevenson is a lawyer who has dedicated his career to helping the poor, the incarcerated, and the condemned. 

Through the EJI, Bryan Stevenson (and his team, including two Davison Alums) has aimed to tackle societal problems present in the majorly flawed justice and prison system  and has won major legal challenges that have included the elimination of unfair sentencing, the exoneration of innocent death row prisoners, and providing aid to children prosecuted as adults.

Stevenson is an incredible public speaker. I was blown away by the manner in which he spoke to such a large crow. Stevenson’s strides to challenge poverty and discrimination to tackle inequality in America makes me think of him as a Nelson Mandela of this era. 

Through all of the touching and powerful stories that he told us, I remember the four parts that we should hold to heart if we want to change the world for good: get proximate, change the narrative, be hopeful, and get uncomfortable. If we challenge ourselves to live by way of these foundations, we will grow as people and have the proper mentality to be the game changers in our communities. Knowing this, I am motivated to actively live my life in a way that I can make a positive contribution to the people around me. 

Lastly, I would consider that the most touching thing Stevenson talked about was the reason he wanted to become a lawyer. He wanted to become a lawyer because he wants to help broken people because at one point, he was broken too. That reminded me of myself and how I want to mend bodies and save the souls of others, because I, too, was broken at some point in my life. 

Tomás Quintero: Unit 5 Assignment 1

Rebecca Schneider, “Performing Remains” (Performance Research 2014)

!:

“Archivists Mary Edsall and Catherine Johnson described the problems of preserving performance, declaring that the practices of body to body transmission’, such as dance and gesture, meant that ‘you lose a lot of history’. Such statements assume that memory cannot be housed in a body and remain, and thus that oral storytelling, live recitation, repeated gesture, and ritual enactment are not practices of telling or writing history. Such practices disappear.” 101

Aha!

It was at this moment that I finally understood why performance is so hard to preserve. Performance is so focused on the body and space, transmitting ideas from one body to another; whereas, archivists tend to preserve ideas and objects because it is a feasible process. With writing, the ideas are preserved in text and transmitted from body to text to body, written on manuscripts that can be preserved forever and be referred to as historical.

?:

“The archive is habitual to western culture. We understand ourselves relative to the remains we accumulate, the tracks we house, mark, and cite, the material traces we acknowledge.” 100

This is something that has made me curious now for some time. Why do we archive things? Why collect objects and marks of things from the past? Who found value in  hoarding old things that we now consider as historical knowledge?

Nicholas Birns, “Ritualizing the Past: Ralph-Lemon’s Counter-Memorials” (PAJ: A Journal of Performance and Art 2005)

!:
Yet Lemon’s improvisational memorial seems more powerful in emotional terms, even though now any trace of it ever happening is gone from the site. Like the Edmund Pettus Bridge, the site in Duluth is now an uninflected, neutralized public space. But neutrality means neither unanimity nor transcendence. The vacancy of the present does not mean America has recovered from its past.” 21

Birns made me think of how memorials have the ability to archive history. Since performances pass and eventually disappear, in this case, powerful events that fueled the civil rights movement, memorials are set in place to immortalize the history of events that have occurred at historic sites. Without having memorials to document history, these sites will not hold the same historical importance.

?:

“Lemon seeks to ritualize the past, but not to monumentalize it. America is a society without any palpable relation to history, a society particularly ahistorical when it assumes it is ultra-historical. The ultra-historicism of official memorials makes us think the past is finished, when we still have the power to construct it.” 22

What is the difference between ritualization of the past and of the monumentalization in a society that believes the past is terminal and disconnected to the world today?

Tomás Quintero: Unit 4 Assignment 2

The use of an image for the purpose of conveying a message holds properties capable of creating a powerful impact without needing much else of an explanation. Thinking about images, and how they are used to send messages with impact, I am reminded of Sontag in Regarding the Pain of Others. Sontag writes about how photographs, primarily war photography, are an effective way to communicate emotion and can be framed to produce a powerful narrative.


Although panels in graphic novel and war photographs have their differences, the same concept that Sontag writes about can also apply to the pictorial depictions illustrated in Book Two of March. Sontag explains that war is brutal and impersonal, it is a faceless mass of indiscriminate killing. Anyone, regardless of their loyalties or associations, can be killed. Photography is capable of putting a face to something. An image can capture the moment and put a face to war, making war seem more human and personal. When someone puts a face to war with an image, war is no longer an abstract form of violence, killing and suffering; but rather, one can see it tangibly as people suffering and feeling emotions, just like any of us. With an image, we no longer simply see the numbers of casualties or how many are displaced; instead, we see the faces of the killers and the killed. We see people.


Looking at the images, the ones that I put under close study are the panels that show Parchman Farm State Penitentiary between pages 99-108 in March. For me, as I looked at these images I felt both a sense of familiarity and of discovery.


During my senior project last spring, I lived in Mississippi for two months volunteering at the Rosedale Freedom Project. My host mother during my stay was Ms. Chapman, a prison guard at Parchman Farm. She would tell me stories of what guards would do to incarcerated individuals, as well as explained what the conditions were like. I even had the opportunity to visit the prison one day and see the front gate and the main compound in the distance, which explains the sense of familiarity. It was powerful that March gave a perspective from within the prison, a place that is mysterious, with plenty of unknowns––especially in the United States. The way Nate Powell represented the prison as a very dark place added created a sense of evil in the prison, as if there is a sense of hopelessness created from years of people who were detained within its walls. In doing so, I am drawn to the details in the image, I look for what the artist chooses to show in the darkness.


In terms of typography, we can see how the words appear to be are bold, harsh, and disorganized. In terms of the use of language, the guard’s language comes off as aggressive, short, and choppy; whereas the language of the incarcerated freedom riders, it comes off as strong, indifferent, and persistent. The combination of language and art made me feel like I was discovering something, as if I was present in this moment, watching all of these interactions go down between the incarcerated individuals and the guards.

From what we see in these panels, both in the use of visualization and in language, we see the harsh prison environment the writers intended to create. In doing so, they heighten the idea of the incarcerated freedom riders by showing their resilience through the abuse from the prison guards––a powerful scene in this graphic novel.

Tomás Quintero: Unit 4 Assignment 1

RESEARCH:

Mary Church Terrell:

  • B: September 23, 1863 in Memphis Tennessee, D: July 24, 1954
  • African American Activist for racial equality and women’s suffrage in the 1800’s and 1900’s
  • Daughter of former slaves who became successful business owners
  • Was from the black middle and upper class and attended Antioch College laboratory school in Ohio and then Oberlin College
  • Believed in the importance of education: 
    • Taught at Wilberforce College (HBCU)
    • Taught at M Street Academy a highschool for people of color in DC
  • Married Heberton Terrell, in 1891, who was also a teacher
    • Had a daughter and adopted another
  • Activism sparked in 1892
    • After the Lynching of Thomas Moss in Memphis––Anti-black violence
      • Due to his business competing with a white business
    • Joined Ida B. Wells in her efforts
    • Helped create the National Association of Colored Women (NACW––1896)
      • President of the Association from 1896-1901
    • Actively campaigned to elevate the status of black women
      • “The only group inthis country that has two such huge obstacles to surmount…both sex and race.”
    • Became one of the founders of the NAACP in 1906
    • Became one of the Charter members of the National Association of University Women in 1910
    • In 1953, she challenged segregation in public places by protesting the John R. Thompson Restaurant in Washington, DC and won
  • There seems to be no religious background but it shows that she values education and she came from a high social class

Ida B. Wells:

  • B: July 16, 1862 in Holly Springs MS, D: March 25, 1931
  • African-American investigative journalist, educator, and a key player early on in the CRM
  • Born into slavery with politically active parents during the Reconstruction Era (1863-1867)
  • Attended Fisk University, Rust College, and Lemoyne-Owen College––believes very strongly in an education
  • Became an educator follow the death of a brother
  • Became involved in activism
    • Joined the fight against lynching after the death of a friend––became a journalist and fought white mob violence
      • Confronted white women involved in the suffrage movement about lynching
      • Traveled internationally
    • Founder of the National Association of Colored Women’s Club (1896)
    • Was “unofficially” involved as a founding member of the NAACP
  • Parents were very religious––instilling racial consciousness
    • Civil rights and justice are not just social, political, and economic, but christian tenets
    • Religious beliefs stemmed from parables that denied black rights and promoted the lynching of black men

THOUGHTS:

Both of these women point out that the origin of violence stem from hatred and fear. With Wells, we see that her focus is more on the corporeal forms of violence which arise from lynching while Terrell shows us that there is violence in civil discrimination, as seen with social barriers. Both Wells and Terrell target women, particularly those that are involved in the suffragist movement since they believe in the value of education and in the power of the ballot box. By doing so, both of these people are capable of expressing themselves, therefore, uplifting the position of black people in the United States in order to counteract anti-black violence. By engaging in these actions, I would say that this is a response and a step to the greater solution to anti-black violence in the United States. 

Tomás Quintero: Unit 3 Assignment 3

A common theme that I find that unites the two texts is how they analyze the power that information, more specifically images, possesses. Gourevitch explains how images and when things are “on film” hold power over people and public influence. The world only knows and sees what you show them, something that Hutu Power used to its advantage to spin the Rwandan PR story on its head. This way, the Hutus, who were the Génocidaires of the situation, were still able to appeal to the worldview through misinformation propaganda by saying that the Tutsis were threatening them, that this was a two-way situation. That simply wasn’t the case and the Hutus then were able to find a way to victimize themselves while they were relentlessly killing off the Tutsis in the background. This connects to Sontag in which they explain how photographs are used to immortalize moments and have a certain authenticity in its expression, which is why images of death and war are so powerful. One can see exactly what the viewer was seeing at that very moment; it is documentation, an artifact. An image is a tiny snapshot of what we know of what is happening. That’s the danger. We only know what we are given, in this case, only a photograph. People can choose what they want and not want others to know. The propaganda department of a government chooses what they want their people and what the rest of the world should and should not know. Because of this power, the information that we are shown can be misleading, and the propaganda that we are shown can simply be misinformation, rather than the truth. The information that we are could be an exaggeration or an understatement of what happened. We might not know anything at all. With that, there is a lot of power behind an image and what we know and don’t know. An image and what you see in it can explain a lot and can have many messages behind it but we don’t necessarily know if that image is an accurate representation of the truth or if there is something else that is going on behind the scenes.

Tomás Quintero: Unit 3 Assignment 2

Chapter 1:

Summary:
The conversation is different now that war can be displayed through photography. The images that Sontag refers to are used frame the dark and ugly reality that is inherent with war. An image is powerful and can be used to make a difference, if only the right people see it and act on it. The way people respond to war varies too, and different approaches have been taken in the past, which include peace, revenge, or a new perspective. This chapter goes on to say that war is arbitrary and nonspecific, it kills whoever, man, woman, or child.
Sentence:  What are the visceral bounds of war?

Chapter 6

Summary:
A photograph is a composition of a photographer’s careful decisions: what are the subjects, what is lightened, and what is darkened? It’s a decision of what is the easiest to see and what draws the eye. Humans have naturally been geared to have their eyes drawn to the pain of other people and it’s so easy to dismiss because we aren’t experiencing it. We look and do nothing about it so it’s a form of useless curiosity.
Sentence:  Humans are drawn to see pain because it makes us innately curious.

Chapter 8:

Summary: The wickedness of humans is the cause of many of the tragedies in life. Everyone encounters a tragedy in their life and will process it in their own way. Even if people don’t enjoy trauma, they can’t help but keep watching. It’s a constant theme in the media, constant tragedy, documentation of pain. It has become normalized. The question that we need to ask ourselves is whether or not we are going to act on what we see displayed on the media.
Sentence:  Media, particularly photographs, are used to display the wicked occurrences in the world. 

Tomás Quintero Passport Assignment

Stateless Travel Document for Jewish person seeking refuge in Japan
Stateless Travel Document for Jewish person seeking refuge in Japan––description of Statelessness.

The first thing that I have to point out about this document is that this is not a passport; instead, this is a travel document for someone who is considered stateless. This document would have been used by a Jewish person who fled Germany during the Holocaust and had their citizenship revoked and was seeking refuge elsewhere. In addition to the story that lies behind this travel document, I read the story of a woman from Kuwait who became stateless because of the fact that the government of Kuwait refused to provide services to people who belonged to the Bedouin tribe. This happened because of a regulation passed by the Kuwaiti government in 1986 which took away their basic rights. Something that Tintin told us was that citizenship is a membership, which comes with both rights and responsibilities. This made me see that by being a citizen of the United States, I hold the privilege of having the benefits of living in a global superpower, as well as hold some responsibilities as a citizen, which include respecting the laws and participating in my community. We also talked about how different countries have different ways of approaching citizenship and deciding on who can and cannot become a citizen. Like for me, I am considered a Colombian National since both of my parents are citizens. If I wanted to (which is the case), I can become a Colombian citizen without any problem by just going to the embassy and I can become a dual citizen. If someone wasn’t Colombian and wanted to become a citizen they would have to go through a simple process and they can eventually become one. However, this isn’t the case with all countries. With Liechtenstein for example, one can only become a citizen there through blood or live there for at least 30 years. If you’re married to a citizen and live in the country, the period is shortened to five years of marriage. It’s also possible to be voted in as a citizen by the Liechtenstein community after 10 years of residency. The one drawback is that one would have to give up their current citizenship. Through this experience, I have learned that there is a tremendous amount of privilege behind having a citizenship at all.

Tomás Quintero: Unit 3 Assignment 1

Hannah Arendt, Banality of Evil, Origins of Totalitarianism, Adolf Eichmann

  • Britannica, Hannah Arendt (https://www.britannica.com/biography/Hannah-Arendt):
    • Jewish Political Scientist and Philosopher––PhD Philosophy
      • Studied totalitarianism
      • Wrote on Jewish affairs
    • Dates:
      • B: October 14, 1906
        • Grew up in Germany+Prussia
        • Fled to Paris 
        • Settled in NYC
      • D: December 4, 1975
    • Origins of Totalitarianism––1951
      • First major publication
        • Regarding topics that include imperialism, totalitarianism, scientific racism, propaganda, and antisemitism
    • Controversial work: Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil (1963)
      • Claimed that Eichmann’s crimes were not based on evil character, but rather, by not thinking and only focusing on succeeding in his role
        • The role of coordinating mass extermination of Jewish people
      • That Eichmann was not inherently evil
        • Backlash from intellectual of all backgrounds––Jewish and non-Jewish
  • Britannica, Adolf Eichmann (https://www.britannica.com/biography/Adolf-Eichmann):
    • High German Military Official
      • “Chief Executioner”
    • Dates:
      • B: March 19, 1906
        • Grew up in Germany
        • Lost his job at an oil company in Germany during the depression 
        • Joined the Nazi Party April 1932
        • Went to hiding post-war and captured by Mossad in Argentina May 1, 1960
      • D: May 31, 1962
        • Executed via hanging by State of Israel for role in the Holocaust––Ayalon Prison
          • Crimes against peace, war crimes (murder, ill treatment, deportation), and crimes against humanity (genocide, persecution against civilians based on religion, politics, and race)
    • Became a member of the SS in November 1932
      • Dealt with Jewish affairs––January 1942: Final Solution
        • Organized the logistics for mass execution
          • Identification, assembly, transportation of people to concentration camps
  • Aeon, The Banality of Evil (https://aeon.co/ideas/what-did-hannah-arendt-really-mean-by-the-banality-of-evil):
    • Big question: Can one do evil without being evil?
      • Arendt studied what Eichmann did when he organized the transportation and murder of 5 million Jews via Final Solution
    • Stated that Eichmann just wanted to progress in his career as a bureaucrat with the Nazis
      • Eichmann executed evil deeds without the evil intention
        • Simply a bureaucrat
      • The banality of evil is to thoughtlessly engage in acts of evil without consciously feeling or knowing what was being done. The actor was not inherently evil, but rather joined in on it. Which is what explains why one would not feel remorse, it just happened. 
        • MAJOR CONTROVERSY
          • People say that Arendt was ‘psychologising’ Eichmann in who he was, rather than what he did
            • Claims say that Arendt lacked the deeper meaning
              • She missed some things about Eichmann
            • Why would Eichmann try to destroy the evidence?
    • Conclusion is that Eichmann did evil without being inherently evil
    • The Origins of Totalitarianism 
      • Published BEFORE Eichmann trial
      • Argued the inhuman evil of the Nazis
        • Echoing the spirit of F W J Schelling and Plato
          • Who explored demonic aspects of evil
  • NPR, Hannah Arendt and the Study of Evil (https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=6268489):
    • Arendt examined totalitarian states and coined the phrase “banality of evil”
      • Implies that evil is banal but it refers to the actor and how they are banal
        • To Arendt, the actor is Eichmann
        • To her, banal means thoughtless, the actor was not in the capacity to engage in any reflection with themself––lack of understanding
          • He didn’t think of the murder as murder, but rather something technical and logistical
            • Creepy normal thinking––very normal about the ordeal
    • Origins of Totalitarianism
      • Totalitarianism was a novel form of government, as shown with Stalin and Nazis
        • Made Stalin comparable with the Nazis
          • Helped McC
      • “Totalitarianism” was rarely used for political analysis